Equal Pay Day

April 14, 2015

Today, April 14, is 2015’s Equal Pay Day. This date (104 days into 2015) symbolizes how far into the current year in addition to the entire previous year women need to work in order to earn the same amount that men earned during the prior year. That is roughly 21 weeks of extra work for equal pay. A pay gap exists in nearly every industry — even in high-paying STEM fields, women are shortchanged.

pay-gap-in-STEM-01-infographic


EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963

When President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act in 1963, a woman made 59 cents in comparison to the dollar a man made. Fifty-two years later, there has only been a 19 cents improvement. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, on average, women now make 78 cents per dollar in comparison to men for the same work. Although, according to the National Women’s Law Center, this gap is even worse for women of color. African American women earn only 64 cents and Latina women earn only 55 cents for each dollar earned by males. The National Committee on Pay Equity has a chart of the wage gap over time. While the gap is closing, it is moving at very slow rate.

Some will argue that women tend to choose different jobs and that more women work in lower-paid occupations. Another argument is that women often leave the workforce during their working prime and/or they cut back to part-time diminishing their earning potential. However, even when these factors are equalized a pay gap of about 9% persists.

LILLY LEDBETTER FAIR PAY ACT OF 2009

Lilly Ledbetter was one of the few female supervisors at a Goodyear Tire plant in Alabama. She worked there for close to two decades eventually retiring in 1998. However, after receiving an anonymous note revealing the salary of three of her male counterparts, she filed an EEOC complaint. Her case went to trial and due to the severe pay discrimination she suffered, she was awarded $3.3 million dollars. Her case eventually reached the Supreme Court, where it was denied because she did not file suit within 180 days of her first paycheck. Ledbetter will never receive this restitution from Goodyear. She is quoted as saying, “I’ll be happy if the last thing they say about me after I die is that I made a difference.” She did and the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act was the first bill President Obama signed into law. It works to give people who experience pay discrimination more time to file a complaint.

With all of this history in mind, it is important to remember that the pay gap still exists today. Even the recent Sony email hacking revealed pay disparity amongst Hollywood’s leading male and female actors. So, what can you do to help? Recommendations for companies and policy makers can be found here and here. However, on an individual level, improved negotiation skills can help close the pay gap as well. One can learn strategies in order to help better negotiate and advocate for fair pay on their behalf.


4 Powerful Questions

April 8, 2015

Are you feeling stuck? Are you looking to recharge some aspect of your career and/or life?

Here are four powerful questions to ask yourself:

1.  What is a chance event that you wish would happen to you?
2.  What can you do now to increase the likelihood of that desirable event?
3.  How would your life change if you acted?
4.  How would your life change if you did nothing?

To learn more about these questions, continue reading a post from the OITE Career Blog originally published in May 2010.

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A desert background with questions marks scattered around.

Post written by: Anne Kirchgessner, LCPC, NCC, Career Counselor

Feeling stuck in your current job? Not sure what your next career step is? Here are some tips to help you make your own good luck and take advantage of both planned and unplanned career opportunities.

John Krumboltz, a noted career development theorist, considers ways to take advantage of both chance and planned events. He calls this concept Happenstance Learning Theory. His work takes into account that the careers of most people have been impacted by chance happenings as well as planned events.

In a recent article in the Journal of Career Assessment (Vol. 17, No. 2, May 2009), Krumboltz writes:

“No one can predict the future – everyone’s career is influenced by many unplanned events.”

He encourages people to remain open to exploring opportunities in order to move ahead in a positive way toward their goals.

The three steps Krumboltz suggests in controlling unplanned events are:

1. Before the unplanned event, take actions that position you to experience it.

Application: Be active in many ways. Join walking groups, attend professional meetings, start a book club, etc.

2. During the event, remain alert and sensitive to recognize potential opportunities.

Application: Keep your mind open to meeting people and finding new opportunities ALL the time, not just at career-related events.

3. After the event, initiate actions that enable you to benefit from it.

Application: Follow up, keep in touch, explore related opportunities.

Rather than say something like “I can’t do this because…” he suggests asking: “How can I act now to increase the chance of a desirable future event?”

Following are four questions that Krumboltz poses that may help you to look ahead in a more positive way to explore a new or future direction:

1. What is a chance event that you wish would happen to you?

e.g. someone might say “I want to meet someone involved in public policy.”

2. How can you act now to increase the chance of a desirable future event?

e.g. “I could join a group affiliated with this field, and/or search on LinkedIn for people currently working in public policy.”

3. How would your life change if you acted?

e.g.  “I would learn more about public policy and probably make some good contacts in the field.”

4. How would your life change if you did nothing?

e.g. “Hard to say for sure…” (But it’s likely that you could miss some opportunities to explore and move ahead toward your goals)

Answering these questions might give you more knowledge and the flexibility to take advantage of chance opportunities.

Krumboltz also believes that the goal of career counseling is to help people “learn to take actions to achieve more satisfying career and personal lives – not just make a single career decision.”


MCAT Meltdown – Dealing with Test Anxiety

April 1, 2015

Image of a boy with sitting at a desk with a test in front of him. He has his hand clasped to his face and a furrowed brow.Testing for the new MCAT begins this month, on April 17th to be exact. Testing will go through September. You can see the full 2015 testing calendar here.

If you are a registered test taker, you have undoubtedly been spending a good portion of your time studying and preparing. For many test takers, the hours spent not studying are consumed by another activity – worry.

Many people experience nervousness in preparation for an exam and especially on test day. Surprisingly, moderate levels of stress can actually be helpful. In preparation for the exam, it can help motivate you to study. On test day, you can get a boost of adrenaline which can actually help you feel more mentally alert and can help you perform better.

Problems arise though when this fear becomes excessive and debilitating. Like more general forms of anxiety, test anxiety is categorized as a psychological condition. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, test anxiety can cause emotional symptoms (fear & anger) as well as physical symptoms like nausea, headache, rapid heartbeat, light-headedness, and a shortness of breath. These physical symptoms can trigger a panic attack. The behavioral/cognitive symptoms that arise from test anxiety often include negative thoughts and a difficulty concentrating.

If you know you are prone to anxiety, especially test anxiety, then you will need to adopt coping mechanisms to help you throughout your MCAT experience. Use your own tried and true methods, while keeping these tips in mind.

Managing anxiety DURING TEST PREPARATION:

  • Maintain a balanced schedule – Study and prepare but don’t spend all of your time focusing on the MCAT as it will only serve to stress you out even more.
  • Keep healthy – Eat right, exercise and get plenty of sleep. It will be more difficult to combat stress and anxiety if you are overtired and sick.
  • Look at the big picture – Your entire self-worth is not dependent on this one exam and if it doesn’t go well, you will have other chances. Putting undue pressure on the situation will only create more stress.
  • It matters what you tell yourself – Instead of saying “I’m nervous,” say “I’m excited.” This can help transform some of the anxiety and in reality, you are excited because taking this test is moving you forward to where you want to go.
  • Practice relaxation techniques – Dr. Andrew Weil swears by a breathing technique which has been described as a natural tranquilizer. Try 4-7-8. Breathe in for four counts, hold for seven counts and the release the breath with your mouth open and hold the tip of your tongue behind your front teeth for eight counts. Repeat this three times.

Managing anxiety ON TEST DAY:

  • Utilize relaxation techniques – It’s time to use the techniques you practiced! Take calming deep breaths and say to yourself “All shall be well. All matters of things shall be well.” Research on meditation has shown that the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain in charge of abstract thinking and critical analysis, responds to positive slogans, exercise and mindfulness.
  • Take a pause – If you begin to panic on test day, then allow yourself a quick break and to breathe and regroup.
  • Focus on you – Test anxiety often comes from dysfunctional cognitive-behavioral patterns, like comparing yourself to others. Do your best to concentrate on YOU!

If you have strategies for managing test anxiety, please comment below!


What Are My Transferable Skills?

March 23, 2015

Image of a stick figure with a question mark over head with different colored arrows pointing in different directions.Whether you are seeking a career in academia, industry, government or the non-profit sector, it is important to communicate your skills to employers. There are skills that almost every employer seeks no matter the sector. These often include: analytical, writing, leadership, communication and problem solving skills. Your work as a trainee has given you many opportunities to develop these skills. As emphasized in a Science Careers article, “The Transferable Postdoc,” don’t underestimate these abilities.

You can identify skills that you have already developed which will transfer to your next professional position. If you think about examples that show when you used these skills, you will be more confident about presenting these skills to potential employers.

In a training position, you may have strengthened your skills in a variety of ways. A postdoc experience is deconstructed as an example in the chart below:

Transferable Skill
Application of Skill
Analytical and
Problem-Solving Skills
Designing, planning and trouble-shooting projects
 Writing Skills Writing memos, reports and
papers for publication
 Public Speaking   Skills  Presenting your work in a lab
meeting or at a professional conference
 Communication Skills  Negotiating how to carry out projects/experiments with your
PI and/or colleagues
 Leadership Skills  Mentoring postbacs, graduate
students and other lab technicians

The National Postdoctoral Association (NPA) has determined six core competencies and they even created a self-assessment checklist to help you rate your current level. This can help you identify any gaps in your skills set. If you haven’t yet taken time to focus on some of these skill areas, particularly the communication and leadership skills, you can find opportunities now to get involved. Organizations like Felcom, your professional associations and NIH Institutes or Centers can provide good opportunities to develop skills.

• Volunteer to work on a committee or group to plan an event or program.
• Volunteer to mentor postbacs or summer students.
• (Professional Development) workshops and events also provide ways to strengthen skills or learn new ones. At the NIH, the OITE offers workshop on topics that include: teaching science, leadership, how to deal with conflict and many others. Check with your institutions to see what services they provide.

There are many other resources available to help you identify your strengths and skills. Start with myIDP*, http://myidp.sciencecareers.org/. This assessment tool will get you started thinking about skills interests and values, and can help you start planning your next career step with more confidence.

As a follow up, then meet with a career counselor, who can help you with goal setting and career planning as well. If you are an intramural trainee, you can make a free individual appointment with a career counselor by going to: https://www.training.nih.gov/career_services.

 

*Noting this resource does not constitute an endorsement by NIH OITE


You Didn’t Get Into Medical School – Now What?

March 15, 2015

Image of four circles in a square. The top two have a green check and green X mark. The bottom two have a red check and red X mark.First, take solace in the fact that you aren’t alone. According to the AAMC, there were over 48,000 medical school applicants in 2013. From that pool of applicants, less than half of them (20,055) matriculated into their first year of medical school.

Secondly, be heartened by recent reports like the one just released in March 2015, “The Complexities of Physician Supply and Demand: Projections from 2013 to 2025.” The conclusion of this study suggests “that demand for physician services is growing faster than physician supply and that by 2025 demand will exceed supply by 46,100 to 90,400 physicians.” Presumably, this also means that medical schools will continue to add spots in their programs to help meet the demand for future physicians. Not only will the demand for physicians grow, but so too will the demand for other health-care related positions like nurses or physician assistants.

If you are really interested in helping people in a medical setting, then there are lots of career possibilities. Don’t let one rejection get you down for too long; however, it is likely that you are asking yourself what you should do now. Should you apply again? If you are willing to tackle the application time and cost yet again, then here are a few other things to consider:

  • What were the true deficits in your application? Can these be remedied by the next deadline?
    The other applicants aren’t going to be less competitive next year, so you must take ownership of this process in order to improve your application. That means that there must be a marked improvement in: MCAT score, clinical hours, new publications or awards, or an increase in your science GPA. These can be difficult areas to quickly improve in a year’s time, even though it can be done with dedication and focus.  However, if some of your mistakes included applying late in the cycle, having a poor personal statement, or bombing an interview, then you can take steps to help overcome these challenges more quickly and easily.

  • Did you overlook schools/programs that could be a good fit?
    Make sure you have a realistic understanding of your credentials versus the admissions requirements at various medical schools. Sure, it would be wonderful to be admitted to you first choice school, but it is important to honestly assess these chances. Perhaps during the first round of applications, you ignored osteopathic schools or you didn’t even consider other medical routes like becoming a nurse, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. Take some time to reflect on all of your options and open up your mind to the possibilities.

Whether you need help handling the stress and anxiety of this process, talking through your options, or better understanding the medical school application process, then come into the OITE*. Here, you can meet with wellness counselors, career counselors or medical school advisors to help you during your next step planning.

 

* OITE services are only available to NIH intramural trainees. If you are at a university, check with your school for the resources they offer.


Yawnfest: Don’t Be a Boring Interviewee

March 11, 2015

Post written by Amanda Dumsch, Career Counselor at OITE.An image of a big yellow smiley face yawning.

After graduate school, I applied for a job I really wanted. In preparation, I did everything I was supposed to – I extensively researched the department and I practiced interview questions at length. On the day of the interview, I was nervous; however, by the end of the day, I was relieved I hadn’t been asked any unexpected questions. A week later, I got a call that I hadn’t gotten the job. I was very disappointed, but again, I did what I supposed to and I asked for feedback.

Here is the feedback I received: “You came across as professionally competent, but at the end of the day, none of us got a sense for your personality and what you would be like to work with day in and day out.” While hard to hear, I realized this was true. I had become so worried about answering all of the questions perfectly, that I forgot to smile, relax, and connect with the interviewers.  I share this story because it is a good reminder. When you get called in for an interview, they already think you are professionally qualified. Much of the time, the interview is to test your personal fit with the team; it is also a chance for you to demonstrate your enthusiasm for the position.

Interviews are anxiety provoking though. As it happened to me, your nerves can get the best of you making you come across as serious and somewhat robotic. So, how can you be memorable during your interview and not bore your interviewers to tears?

Don’t be afraid to show your personality

In an interview, the easiest way to accomplish this is by answering questions with anecdotes. People don’t tend to remember facts and figures, they remember stories. Create your personal narrative for them by walking them through your past experiences, especially your accomplishments.

Demonstrate enthusiasm
Positive energy is infectious, but don’t go overboard. Simply remembering to smile and explicitly state your excitement about this opportunity can go a long way. Employers will be excited about individuals who genuinely seem passionate about their organization and motivated by their work.

Stand out for the right reasons
Interviewers will positively remember candidates who came across as professional, pleasant and prepared. Sometimes the best way to stand out is not only by answering the interview questions in stride but by asking them great questions as well. It is important to remember that you are interviewing them as well. Some good questions to ask include: How would you describe the work environment and company culture? Generally, how is performance measured? How did you choose to work at this organization? In your opinion, what are some of the strengths and challenges in your work? What types of opportunities, for career advancement or professional development, might open up?

Nobody expects you to be perfect in your interview, so take a deep breath, do some power poses, and most importantly be yourself!


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